Painting of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Source: Wikipedia.

First, let’s be clear that I do not aim, by any chance, to discuss arguments in detail here. As I said in other posts of this blog, I just use this to keep track of my own views or summarize books I read. On the other hand, please reach out to me on the comments or on Twitter with any questions you have about what I write here. Engaging in discussions about a topic is the best way to learn, so thanks in advance if you do that.

Second, I use the material from Reasonable Faith (by William Lane Craig)…


Book cover. Image source: ChristianBook.com

As I said in my previous post, I’m finally done with my Master’s degree, and that now allows me to read the books that I choose. It turned out that this, as the first book I read after graduation, is also the best book I read in 2020 by far, given the relevance of the subject in current times. For those who don’t know, Esau McCaulley is a PhD in New Testament studies and had N. T. Wright as advisor for his doctorate. …


The Battle of Otumba. Image source.

A few weeks ago I began to plan my 2021 list of books to read. As some of you know, I just finished my Master’s degree in Christian Apologetics from Talbot School of Theology, Biola University. Thus, I will be able to read what I want, and not just assigned readings in the new year. Do not get me wrong, I really liked (most of) the readings I had to do during the graduate program, but it’s really nice to choose what you are going to read.

One of the things that I wanted to do this year was to…


Coming from a Computer Science background, the most complicated thing that I found while studying the humanities was to organize my thoughts related to all the different authors and also all the different subjects I had studied so far. In our current society, it is usually more important to show how many books you read rather than how much knowledge you actually acquired from them. …


By Caravaggio, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=44143232

In that last post we saw that the empty tomb and the appearances to the disciples are the basis for the argument in favor of the resurrection of Jesus. If the disciples actually stole the body and were lying about the appearances of the risen Jesus to them, the whole argument falls apart. Thus, I would like to discuss another part of the argument which is used to dismiss the claims that the disciples were lying about the appearances: they were willing to die for their faiths and some of them actually died as martyrs. It does not make sense…


Picture from: https://www.crosswalk.com/faith/10-things-every-christian-should-know-about-the-cross.html

In the Christian Apologetics field, it is very common to see people using the “minimal facts” approach when arguing for the resurrection of Jesus. In this approach, the apologist first establishes some historical facts that are accepted by virtually all historians, such as the crucifixion of Jesus and the conversion of the apostle Paul. After advancing their argument by getting the other side of the debate to grant these facts as reliable or secure from a historical standpoint, the Christian would go on to ask: what is the best explanation for these facts? Of course, from our point of view…


Available at: https://www.amazon.com/Resurrection-Jesus-New-Historiographical-Approach/dp/0830827196

A few months ago I was watching a debate about the resurrection of Jesus between Nathaniel Walters and my colleague Dean Meadows (we are/were both students of the MA program in Christian Apologetics at Talbot School of Theology, Biola University). One part that struck me right in the beginning of Nathaniel’s opening statement was the following: “the Bible is not evidence for the resurrection of Jesus, it is the claim.” [1] It was argued that we should, then, look for contemporary extra-biblical accounts to determine if the claims made in the Bible are historically correct. For example, later when Dean…


https://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/1997/march3/7t322a.html

My interest to read one of Francis Schaeffer’s books started probably with several mentions to him in the books and articles of Greg Koukl (check the summary I wrote about his book Tactics). Schaeffer is considered by several people one of the greatest names in apologetics from the 20th century. Another influence I had on this was from Brazilian pastors Guilherme de Carvalho and Igor Miguel, the first one leads L’abri Brasil. L’Abri Fellowship International is an institution created by Schaeffer and his wife when they were living in Switzerland, and it’s a mix of a retreat with a short-term…


Picture of Charles Darwin. Source: Wikipedia.

This post is based on a précis analyzing the extract of the text “The Descent of Man”, by Charles Darwin, part of the book “Ethical Theory: Classical and Contemporary Readings”, edited by Louis Pojman. That said, I have no intention of analyzing the whole evolutionary ethics theory proposed by Darwin or subsequently developed by E. O. Wilson or Michael Ruse. All the pages cited in parenthesis correspond to the book edited by Pojman.

The Descent of Man

In The Descent of Man, Charles Darwin applies his theory of natural selection to the origins and development of morality in animals. In the beginning, Darwin argues…


Hans Speckaert: “Conversion of St. Paul on the Road to Damascus.” Image from Wikimedia Commons.

Paul is definitely an important figure in human history, from Christian and non-Christian perspectives. His teachings about Jesus, God, and man were creative, compelling, and controversial, and “Nothing would ever be quite the same again” after him.[1] Marcus Borg and John Dominic Crossan define him as the “second only to Jesus as the most important person in the origins of Christianity.”[2] This is an especially remarkable fact, considering his letters all put together have fewer than eighty pages.[3]

A very important point of his story is that he persecuted the group of people who followed Jesus before writing all these…

Helton Duarte

Christian. Husband. Brazilian. Software Engineer. Philosophy & Theology nerd. Doubt the premises; find the hidden assumptions; live the conclusions consistently

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